Kazakhstan

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Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original PDF on 18 August

Add a Place. See all photos. Kazakhstan Kazakhstan. Start planning for Kazakhstan. Create a Trip to save and organize all of your travel ideas, and see them on a map. Create a Trip. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. Borovoe, Kazakhstan. Aktau, Kazakhstan. Shymkent, Kazakhstan. Kapchagay, Kazakhstan. Burabay, Kazakhstan.

Kokshetau, Kazakhstan. Kostanay, Kazakhstan. Essential Kazakhstan. Go Play. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. Kolsai Tour. Archived from the original PDF on 19 March Retrieved 15 September The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be the Kazakh language. In state institutions and local self-administrative bodies the Russian language shall be officially used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh language.

Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 30 August Countries and territories of Europe. Territory or with territory geographically part of North America 3. Partially recognized. Territory has some form of self-rule. Territory or with territory geographically part of Africa. Countries and territories of Asia. Includes territory in both Europe and Asia. Usually thought of Europe for cultural , political and historical reasons.

Special territories. Disputed territories. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. Wikimedia Commons. Indeed, Nursultan is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry. There are ten nature reserves and ten national parks in Kazakhstan that provide safe haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Common plants are Astragalus , Gagea , Allium , Carex and Oxytropis ; endangered plant species include native wild apple Malus sieversii , wild grape Vitis vinifera and several wild tulip species e.

Tulipa greigii and rare onion species Allium karataviense , also Iris willmottiana and Tulipa kaufmanniana. Common mammals include the wolf , red fox , corsac fox , moose , argali the largest species of sheep , Eurasian lynx , Pallas's cat , and snow leopards , several of which are protected. Kazakhstan's Red Book of Protected Species lists vertebrates including many birds and mammals, and plants including fungi, algae and lichen. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, constitutional unitary republic ; Nursultan Nazarbayev led the country from to The prime minister chairs the cabinet of ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government.

There are three deputy prime ministers and sixteen ministers in the cabinet. Kazakhstan has a bicameral parliament composed of the Majilis the lower house and senate the upper house. The senate has 47 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies Maslihats of Kazakhstan's sixteen principal administrative divisions fourteen regions plus the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty.

The president appoints the remaining seven senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the parliament. Reforms have begun to be implemented after the election of Kassym-Jomart Tokayev in June Tokayev supports a culture of opposition, public assembly, and loosening rules on forming political parties.

In June , on the initiative of the President of Kazakhstan, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev the National Council of Public Trust have been established as a platform in which wider society can discuss different views and strengthen the national conversation regarding government policies and reforms.

A law will be passed to allow representatives from other parties to hold Chair positions on some Parliamentary committees, to foster alternative views and opinions. The minimum membership threshold needed to register a political party will be reduced from 40, to 20, members. Special places for peaceful rallies in central areas will be allocated and a new draft law outlining the rights and obligations of organisers, participants and observers will be passed.

In an effort to increase public safety, President Tokayev has strengthened the penalties for those who commit crimes against individuals. Elections to the Majilis in September , yielded a lower house dominated by the pro-government Otan Party , headed by President Nazarbayev. Two other parties considered sympathetic to the president, including the agrarian-industrial bloc AIST and the Asar Party , founded by President Nazarbayev's daughter, won most of the remaining seats.

The opposition parties which were officially registered and competed in the elections won a single seat. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe was monitoring the election, which it said fell short of international standards.

On 4 December , Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected in an apparent landslide victory. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election. Opposition parties made accusations of serious irregularities in the election.

In , president Nazarbayev rejected a call from supporters to hold a referendum to keep him in office until He insisted on presidential elections for a five-year term. In a vote held on 3 April , president Nazarbayev received On 26 April , the fifth presidential election was held in Kazakhstan.

On 19 March , Nazarbayev announced his resignation from the presidency. The cities of Almaty and Nur-Sultan have status "state importance" and do not belong to any region. The city of Baikonur has a special status because it is being leased until to Russia for the Baikonur cosmodrome.

Each region is headed by an akim regional governor appointed by the president. District akim s [ akimi? Kazakhstan's government relocated its capital from Almaty, established under the Soviet Union, to Astana on 10 December Municipalities exist at each level of administrative division in Kazakhstan.

Cities of republican, regional, and district significance are designated as urban inhabited localities; all others are designated rural. Cities of these two levels may be divided into city districts. The nations of Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus , Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Community in , to revive earlier efforts to harmonise trade tariffs and to create a free trade zone under a customs union.

On 1 December , it was announced that Kazakhstan had been chosen to chair the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for the year The official response of the Assembly was that because Kazakhstan is partially located in Europe, [79] [80] it could apply for full membership, but that it would not be granted any status whatsoever at the council until its democracy and human rights records improved.

They pledged to intensify bilateral co-operation to promote nuclear safety and non-proliferation, regional stability in Central Asia, economic prosperity, and universal values. In April , president Obama called president Nazarbayev and discussed many cooperative efforts regarding nuclear security, including securing nuclear material from the BN reactor. They reviewed progress on meeting goals that the two presidents established during their bilateral meeting at the Nuclear Security Summit in The military personnel, ranking from captain to colonel, had to go through a specialised UN training; they had to be fluent in English and skilled in using specialised military vehicles.

In , Kazakhstan gave Ukraine humanitarian aid during the conflict with Russian-backed rebels. Kazakhstan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement on 26 January "We are firmly convinced that there is no alternative to peace negotiations as a way to resolve the crisis in south-eastern Ukraine. The document outlines the following main points:. These units became the core of Kazakhstan's new military. It acquired all the units of the 40th Army the former 32nd Army and part of the 17th Army Corps, including six land-force divisions, storage bases, the 14th and 35th air-landing brigades, two rocket brigades, two artillery regiments, and a large amount of equipment that had been withdrawn from over the Urals after the signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Since the late 20th century, the Kazakhstan Army has focused on expanding the number of its armoured units. Since , armoured units have expanded from to 1, in A small naval force is maintained on the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan sent 49 military engineers to Iraq to assist the US post-invasion mission in Iraq.

The latter is considered as the most important part of KNB. Its director is Nurtai Abykayev. Since , the joint tactical peacekeeping exercise "Steppe Eagle" has been hosted by the Kazakhstan government. Kazakhstan's human rights situation is described as poor by independent observers. The Human Rights Watch report on Kazakhstan said that the country "heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion.

In , authorities closed newspapers, jailed or fined dozens of people after peaceful but unsanctioned protests, and fined or detained worshipers for practising religion outside state controls. Government critics, including opposition leader Vladimir Kozlov , remained in detention after unfair trials. In mid, Kazakhstan adopted new criminal, criminal executive, criminal procedural, and administrative codes, and a new law on trade unions, which contain articles restricting fundamental freedoms and are incompatible with international standards.

Torture remains common in places of detention. The executive branch sharply limited judicial independence. Prosecutors enjoyed a quasi-judicial role and had the authority to suspend court decisions. Corruption was evident at every stage of the judicial process. Although judges were among the most highly paid government employees, lawyers and human rights monitors alleged that judges, prosecutors, and other officials solicited bribes in exchange for favorable rulings in the majority of criminal cases.

Kazakhstan's Supreme Court has taken recent steps to modernise and to increase transparency and oversight over the country's legal system. In an effort to increase transparency in the criminal justice and court system, and improve human rights, Kazakhstan intends to digitise all investigative, prosecutorial and court records by Homosexuality has been legal in Kazakhstan since ; though it is still socially unacceptable in most areas. Kazakhstan has the largest and strongest performing economy in Central Asia.

Kazakhstan ranks third, after China and Qatar, among the 25 most dynamic economies of the 21st century's first decade. Kazakhstan's increased role in global trade and central positioning on the new Silk Road has given the country the potential to open its markets to billions of people. Kazakhstan joined the World Trade Organisation in Buoyed by high world crude oil prices, GDP growth figures were between 8. Kazakhstan is a leading exporter of uranium. Kazakhstan's economy grew by 4.

Kazakhstan's fiscal situation is stable. The government has continued to follow a conservative fiscal policy by controlling budget spending and accumulating oil revenue savings in its Oil Fund — Samruk-Kazyna. The global financial crisis forced Kazakhstan to increase its public borrowing to support the economy.

Public debt increased to Between and , the government achieved an overall fiscal surplus of 4. Since , Kazakhstan has sought to manage strong inflows of foreign currency without sparking inflation. Inflation has not been under strict control, however, registering 6. This change in status recognised substantive market economy reforms in the areas of currency convertibility, wage rate determination, openness to foreign investment, and government control over the means of production and allocation of resources.

Kazakhstan weathered the global financial crisis well, [ citation needed ] by combining fiscal relaxation with monetary stabilisation. In , the government introduced large-scale support measures such as the recapitalisation of banks and support for the real estate and agricultural sectors, as well as for small and medium enterprises SMEs. In September , Kazakhstan became the first country in the CIS to receive an investment grade credit rating from a major international credit rating agency.

There has been a reduction in the ratio of debt to GDP. The ratio of total governmental debt to GDP in , was Economic growth, combined with earlier tax and financial sector reforms, has dramatically improved government finance from the budget deficit level of 3. Government revenues grew from In , Kazakhstan adopted a new tax code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Kazakhstan furthered its reforms by adopting a new land code on 20 June , and a new customs code on 5 April Energy is the leading economic sector.

Production of crude oil and natural gas condensate from the oil and gas basins of Kazakhstan amounted to Kazakhstan raised oil and gas condensate exports to Gas production in Kazakhstan in , amounted to Major oil and gas fields and recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels 1. Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in There are 11 saving pension funds in the country.

The State Accumulating Pension Fund, the only state-owned fund, was privatised in The country's unified financial regulatory agency oversees and regulates the pension funds. The growing demand of the pension funds for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds , including government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds.

The government of Kazakhstan is studying a project to create a unified national pension fund and transfer all the accounts from the private pension funds into it. The banking system of Kazakhstan is developing rapidly and the system's capitalisation now [ when?

The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Due to troubling and non-performing bad assets the bank sector yet is at risk to lose stability. Kookmin and UniCredit have both recently entered the Kazakhstan's financial services market through acquisitions and stake -building. According to the —11 World Economic Forum in Global Competitiveness Report, Kazakhstan was ranked 72nd in the world in economic competitiveness.

In , Aftenposten quoted the human-rights activist and lawyer Denis Jivaga as saying that there is an " oil fund in Kazakhstan, but nobody knows how the income is spent". GDP growth in January—September was 5. China is one of the main economic and trade partners of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan exports products to countries. Its arable land has the second highest availability per inhabitant 1. Chief livestock products are dairy products , leather, meat, and wool.

The country's major crops include wheat, barley , cotton, and rice. Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency , rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In Kazakhstan harvested Kazakhstani agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty. Kazakhstan is thought to be one of the places that the apple originated, particularly the wild ancestor of Malus domestica , Malus sieversii.

The region where it is thought to originate is called Almaty : "rich with apple". KTZ cooperates with French loco manufacturer Alstom in developing Kazakhstan's railway infrastructure. Alstom has more than staff and two joint ventures with KTZ and its subsidiary in Kazakhstan. It is the only repairing center in Central Asia and the Caucasus. As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era, rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning.

This has caused anomalies such as the route from Oral to Aktobe now passes briefly through Russian territory. It also means that routes might not suit modern-day Kazakhstani needs. Astana Nurly Zhol railway station , the most modern railway station in Kazakhstan, was opened in Nur-Sultan on 31 May The opening of the station coincided with the start of the Expo international exhibition.

According to Kazakhstan Railways KTZ , the ,m2 station is expected to be used by 54 trains a day and has capacity to handle 35, passengers a day. There is a small 8. A second and third metro lines are planned in the future. The second line would intersect with the first line at Alatau and Zhibek Zholy stations. The general contractor is Almatymetrokurylys.

The extension includes five new stations, and will connect the downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be 8. The first phase the current phase will be the addition of two stations: Sairan and Moscow, a length of 2. There was a tram system of 10 lines which operated from to The Astana Metro system is under construction. It's been a long time coming and the project was abandoned at one point in , [] but an agreement was signed on 7 May for the project to go ahead.

It had a fleet of 50 working tram cars. Its fleet of trams are due to be replaced and in , the city announced plans to purchase new trams. In the European Commission blacklisted all Kazakh air carriers with a sole exception of Air Astana. Since then, Kazakhstan has consistently taken measures to modernise and revamp its air safety oversight. In the European air safety authorities removed all Kazakh airlines from the blacklist and there was "sufficient evidence of compliance" with international standards by Kazakh Airlines and the Civil Aviation Committee.

Kazakhstan has vast deposits of uranium, precious metals, metals, ores, alloys, ferroalloys and minerals. Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country by area and the largest landlocked country. Today, tourism is not a major component of the economy. As of , tourism has accounted for 0. The WEF ranks Kazakhstan 80th in its report.

In , Kazakhstan ranked 43rd in the world in terms of number of tourist arrivals. In total 1. The Kazakh Government, long characterised as authoritarian with a history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition, [15] has started an initiative named the "Tourism Industry Development Plan ". Kazakhstan launched the Green Economy Plan in The government has set the goals that a transition to the Green Economy in Kazakhstan occur by The government of Kazakhstan has set prices for energy produced from renewable sources.

The price of 1 kilowatt-hour for energy produced by wind power plants was set at The price for 1 kilowatt-hour produced by small hydro-power plants is Foreign direct investment FDI plays a more significant role in the national economy than in most other former Soviet republics.

President Nazarbayev signed into law tax concessions to promote foreign direct investment which include a ten-year exemption from corporation tax, an eight-year exemption from property tax, and a ten-year freeze on most other taxes. The banking industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan experienced a pronounced boom and bust cycle over s decade.

After several years of rapid expansion in the mids, the banking industry collapsed in Although the Russian and Kazakhstani banking systems share several common features, there are also some fundamental differences. Banks in Kazakhstan have experienced a lengthy period of political stability and economic growth. Together with a rational approach to banking and finance policy, this has helped push Kazakhstan's banking system to a higher level of development.

Banking technology and personnel qualifications alike are stronger in Kazakhstan than in Russia. On the negative side, past stability in Kazakhstan arose from the concentration of virtually all political power in the hands of a single individual — the key factor in any assessment of system or country risk. The potential is there for serious disturbances if and when authority passes into new hands.

In October , Kazakhstan introduced its first overseas dollar bonds in 14 years. The housing market of Kazakhstan has grown since On 11 November , President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev delivered an unexpected state-of-the-nation address in Nur-Sultan at an extended session of the Political Council of the Nur Otan party, introducing a "Nurly Jol" Bright Path , a new economic policy that implies massive state investment in infrastructure over the next several years.

Public research is largely confined to institutes, with universities making only a token contribution. Research institutes receive their funding from national research councils under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education and Science. Their output, however, tends to be disconnected from market needs. In the business sector, few industrial enterprises conduct research themselves.

By , this ratio stood at 0. It will be difficult to reach the target as long as economic growth remains strong. This augmentation was due to a sharp rise in product design and the introduction of new services and production methods over this period, to the detriment of the acquisition of machinery and equipment, which has traditionally made up the bulk of Kazakhstan's innovation expenditure. In this document, Kazakhstan gives itself 15 years to evolve into a knowledge economy.

New sectors are to be created during each five-year plan. The first of these, covering the years —, focused on developing industrial capacity in car manufacturing, aircraft engineering and the production of locomotives, passenger and cargo railroad cars. During the second five-year plan to , the goal is to develop export markets for these products. To enable Kazakhstan to enter the world market of geological exploration, the country intends to increase the efficiency of traditional extractive sectors such as oil and gas.

It also intends to develop rare earth metals, given their importance for electronics, laser technology, communication and medical equipment. The second five-year plan coincides with the development of the Business roadmap for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs , which makes provision for the allocation of grants to SMEs in the regions and for microcredit. The government and the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs also plan to develop an effective mechanism to help start-ups.

During subsequent five-year plans to , new industries will be established in fields such as mobile, multi-media, nano- and space technologies, robotics, genetic engineering and alternative energy. Food processing enterprises will be developed with an eye to turning the country into a major regional exporter of beef, dairy and other agricultural products.

Low-return, water-intensive crop varieties will be replaced with vegetable, oil and fodder products. Experimental agrarian and innovational clusters will be established and drought-resistant genetically modified crops developed. The Digital Kazakhstan program was launched in to boost the country's economic growth through the implementation of digital technologies.

The program helped create , jobs and attracted Official estimates put the population of Kazakhstan at The population estimate is 6. The decline in population that began after has been arrested and possibly reversed. Men and women make up As of , ethnic Kazakhs are Some minorities such as Ukrainians , Koreans , Volga Germans 1. Some of the largest Soviet labour camps Gulag existed in the country. Significant Russian immigration was also connected with the Virgin Lands Campaign and Soviet space program during the Khrushchev era.

After the break-up of the Soviet Union , most of them emigrated to Germany. These people are now known as Koryo-saram. The s were marked by the emigration of many of the country's Russians and Volga Germans , a process that began in the s. This has made indigenous Kazakhs the largest ethnic group. Additional factors in the increase in the Kazakhstani population are higher birthrates and immigration of ethnic Kazakhs from China, Mongolia , and Russia. Kazakhstan is officially a bilingual country.

Kazakh , part of the Kipchak family of Turkic languages [] spoken natively by The government announced in January that the Latin alphabet will replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by English, as well as Turkish, have gained popularity among younger people since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Education across Kazakhstan is conducted in either Kazakh, Russian, or both. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by Article 39 of Kazakhstan's Constitution.

Article 39 states: "Human rights and freedoms shall not be restricted in any way. Islam is the largest religion in Kazakhstan, followed by Orthodox Christianity. After decades of religious suppression by the Soviet Union , the coming of independence witnessed a surge in expression of ethnic identity, partly through religion. The free practice of religious beliefs and the establishment of full freedom of religion led to an increase of religious activity.

Hundreds of mosques, churches, and other religious structures were built in the span of a few years, with the number of religious associations rising from in to 4, today. Some figures show that non-denominational Muslims [] form the majority, while others indicate that most Muslims in the country are Sunnis following the Hanafi school.

There are also some Ahmadi Muslims. One quarter of the population is Russian Orthodox, including ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. The Russian Orthodox Christmas is recognised as a national holiday in Kazakhstan.

According to the Census data, there are very few Christians outside the Slavic and Germanic ethnic groups. Education is universal and mandatory through to the secondary level and the adult literacy rate is Education consists of three main phases: primary education forms 1—4 , basic general education forms 5—9 and senior level education forms 10—11 or 12 divided into continued general education and vocational education. Vocational Education usually lasts three or four years.

These levels can be followed in one institution or in different ones e. Recently, several secondary schools, specialised schools, magnet schools, gymnasiums , lyceums and linguistic and technical gymnasiums have been founded. Secondary professional education is offered in special professional or technical schools, lyceums or colleges and vocational schools.

At present, there are universities , academies and institutes, conservatories , higher schools and higher colleges. There are three main levels: basic higher education that provides the fundamentals of the chosen field of study and leads to the award of the Bachelor's degree ; specialised higher education after which students are awarded the Specialist's Diploma; and scientific-pedagogical higher education which leads to the master's degree.

With the adoption of the Laws on Education and on Higher Education, a private sector has been established and several private institutions have been licensed. The largest number of student loans come from Almaty, Nur-Sultan and Kyzylorda. The training and skills development programs in Kazakhstan are also supported by international organisations.

Before the Russian colonisation, the Kazakhs had a highly developed culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Islam was introduced into the region with the arrival of the Arabs in the 8th century. It initially took hold in the southern parts of Turkestan and spread northward. The Golden Horde further propagated Islam amongst the tribes in the region during the 14th century. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry in Kazakhstan and it is joining the international tourism networking.

Kazakh literature is defined as "the body of literature, both oral and written, produced in the Kazakh language by the Kazakh people of Central Asia". There is some overlap with several complementary themes, including the literature of Turkic tribes that inhabited Kazakhstan over the course of the history and literature written by ethnic Kazakhs.

According to Chinese written sources of 6th—8th centuries CE, Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan had oral poetry tradition. These came from earlier periods, and were primarily transmitted by bards : professional storytellers and musical performers. Initially created around 9th century CE, they were passed on through generations in oral form. The legendary tales were recorded by Turkish authors in 14—16th centuries C. The literary magazines Ay Qap published between and in Arabic script and Qazaq published between and played an important role in the development of the intellectual and political life among early 20th-century Kazakhs.

The folk instrument orchestra was named after Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly , a famous composer and dombra player from the 19th century. The Musical-Dramatic Training College, founded in , was the first institute of higher education for music. The Foundation Asyl Mura is archivating and publishing historical recordings of great samples of Kazakh music both traditional and classical. The leading conservatoire is in Almaty, the Qurmanghazy Conservatoire. It currently competes with the national conservatoire in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan's capital.

When referring to traditional Kazakh music, authentic folklore must be separated from "folklorism". The latter denotes music executed by academically trained performers who aim at preserving the traditional music for coming generations. As far as can be reconstructed, the music of Kazakhstan from the period before a strong Russian influence consists of instrumental music and vocal music.

Vocal music, either as part of a ceremony such as a wedding mainly performed by women , or as part of a feast. Here we might divide into subgenres: epic singing, containing not only historical facts, but as well the tribe's genealogy, love songs, didactic verses; and as a special form the composition of two or more singers in public Aitys , of dialogue character and usually unexpectedly frankly in content.

The Russian influence on the music life in Kazakhstan can be seen in two spheres: first, the introduction of musical academic institutions such as concert houses with opera stages, conservatories, where the European music was performed and taught, and second, by trying to incorporate Kazakh traditional music into these academic structures. Controlled first by the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union , Kazakhstan's folk and classical traditions became connected with ethnic Russian music and Western European music.

Prior to the 20th century, Kazakh folk music was collected and studied by ethnographic research teams including composers, music critics and musicologists. In the first part of the 19th century, Kazakh music was transcribed in linear notation. Some composers of this era set Kazakh folk songs to Russian-style European classical music. The Kazakhs themselves, however, did not write their own music in notation until Later, as part of the Soviet Union, Kazakh folk culture was encouraged in a sanitised manner designed to avoid political and social unrest.

The result was a bland derivative of real Kazakh folk music. In , Aleksandr Zatayevich , a Russian official, created major works of art music with melodies and other elements of Kazakh folk music. Beginning in and accelerating in the s, he also adapted traditional Kazakh instruments for use in Russian-style ensembles, such as by increasing the number of frets and strings.

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My First day in Kazakhstan: Sim - Local Currency - Public transport - Hotel Central Asia:: Kazakhstan Print. Locator Map for Kazakhstan. View Kazakhstan Photo Gallery. ONE-PAGE SUMMARY. View 6 photos of. KAZAKHSTAN. Ambassador Kazykhanov is one of Kazakhstan's most experienced diplomats, and has served as ambassador to several missions, foreign minister and assistant. News about Kazakhstan, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.

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