Internet searches were used to supplement information for nicotine concentration and flavor. Introduction: Considerable declines in cigarette smoking have occurred in the U. Docket No.
Products were categorized by nicotine concentration, flavor, type disposable or rechargeable , and brand. Dollar sales, unit sales, and average nicotine concentration were assessed. Results: During , the average nicotine concentration in e-cigarettes sold increased overall, for all flavor categories, and for rechargeable e-cigarettes.
Conclusions: E-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations comprise a substantial and increasing portion of U. Higher nicotine concentrations may influence patterns of e-cigarette use, including harms from e-cigarette initiation among youth and potential health benefits for adult smokers switching completely to e-cigarettes. Public Health England;1 the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine; and the FDA have recognized that nicotine products exist on a continuum of risk, with e-cigarettes at the lower end near traditional nicotine replacement therapies and combustible cigarettes at the highest end of the risk spectrum.
Importantly, in its comprehensive report, Public Health England stated that e-cigarettes are unlikely to exceed 5 percent of the risk associated with combustible cigarettes. E-cigarettes may present an important opportunity for adult smokers to transition off combustible tobacco products.
It is vital that products intended to replace combustible cigarettes are able to achieve a nicotine delivery pro- file similar to that of combustible cigarettes. By contrast, unrestricted use of nicotine replacement therapy products generally achieves only one- to two-thirds the blood nicotine concentration achieved from combustible cigarettes.
If e-cigarettes are to be a viable substitute for combustible cigarettes, the nicotine concentration in e-cigarettes must mimic that of combustible cigarettes. In their article assessing nicotine absorption from e-cigarettes, Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos et al.
Farsalinos et al. Salts are used to alter the pH of a compound to maximize solubility and absorption. E-cigarettes and vaping devices, in which a liquid containing nicotine is heated and the vapor is inhaled, can have nicotine levels that range from zero to 18 milligrams per milliliter of liquid.
In the study, USC researchers surveyed 10th-graders across Los Angeles who reported smoking e-cigarettes. The nicotine concentration in their products was recorded as a baseline, and a six-month follow-up assessed whether they continued vaping, increased their nicotine levels or started smoking cigarettes. The study participants were essentially distributed evenly between boys and girls and were majority Hispanic with parents who had not graduated from college, the researchers wrote.
Though their sample size was small, the researchers said, it had a high rate of retention and a detailed assessment of smoking and vaping intensity. In the six-month follow-up, teenagers who used e-cigarettes with higher concentration levels of nicotine were more likely to report an increased frequency of vaping and greater levels of smoking cigarettes, the study found. However, the researchers noted limitations in their study, including that the data were self-reported and not objectively verified.
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