Perhaps his controversial ideas militated against his acceptance in the surrounding society. Another explanation is implied by a comparison between Kaspi and his more famous contemporary, Gersonides, also a biblical exegete and philosopher; Gersonides, despite his by no means conservative ideas, earned considerable fame among both Jewish and non-Jewish thinkers.
This was largely thanks to his systematic, profound, philosophical work Milchamot Hashem , which placed him squarely in the realm of philosophy, while his Bible commentaries were written in the spirit of plain interpretation. Kaspi, however, was something of a philosopher among commentators and a commentator among philosophers; perhaps that was why he never attained prominence in either group.
Life 2. Exegesis 3. Logic 4. Logic and the Hebrew language 5. Philosophical principles in lexicographic methodology 6. Theology and anthropology 6. Life Joseph b. I found there the fourth and fifth generations of his holy seed, all of them righteous, but none of them devoted to science. In all the Orient there were no scholars… Sefer HaMussar p. Exegesis Kaspi considered himself primarily as a commentator.
This is not a matter of psychological rules, but of regulative rules that serve as a marker and a guide to the correct way of thinking. The logic determines the proper use of the language. In the words of Maimonides: [Logic causes] whatever the tongue utters [to] harmonize and agree with the hidden thought, the expression neither adding to, nor detracting from, the promptings of the soul Treatise on Logic , pp.
Logic and the Hebrew language Another methodological discipline that Kaspi used was the philosophy of language. It is fitting for a perfect language to have the nouns dispersed therein indicate something about their four causes matter ,form, agent and purpose , or about their features and the cases in which they are employed […] As an example [in Hebrew], they call our species adam, ish and enosh.
The dictionary is based on two main assumptions: There are no real homonyms. Kaspi determines the principle of the common denominator a priori, an economical principle of logic according to which the root has a chief meaning that includes all words derived from the same root. In some cases, however, he was forced to adapt the data to conform to the principle.
Last, p. There are no full synonyms. Kaspi, who claims that Hebrew has no full synonyms for words, worked hard to differentiate among synonyms throughout his dictionary. Theology and anthropology Kaspi thus bases his biblical exegesis on the conventional theological assumptions of the philosophy of his times: God is a necessary existent, the Unmoved Mover, the intellect that intellectually cognizes itself. We are also their equal in every respect, unless we realize the potential of our intellect.
All that is… so that we should be aroused to acquire intelligence and the intelligibles, for in them we differ from the worms… Adnei Kesef , p. Conclusion If medieval philosophy from Philo to Spinoza may indeed be understood as philosophy at the service of biblical exegesis, Joseph ibn Kaspi may certainly be viewed as one of its most successful representatives.
Last, pt. I, London ; pt. II, London Menachem Hacohen, Jerusalem ff. Commentaries on the book of Job two versions , in: Asarah Kelei Kesef , ed. Last, vol. I, Presburg Commentaries on the book of Proverbs two versions , in: Asarah Kelei Kesef , ed. Vatican An annotated edition is under preparation by Hannah Kasher and Charles H. II, Presburg Herring, New York Kesef Sigim , questions on the Bible, lost. I, Presburg ; Version B, in E. Kipurei Kesef , Critique of earlier Bible commentaries, lost.
Menorat Kesef , in: Asarah Kelei Kesef , ed. Mazmerot Kesef , Commentary on the book of Psalms, lost. Matsref la-Kesef , Systematic commentary on the Torah, ed. Last, Krakow Mitot Kesef , Treatise on the intentions of the Bible, lost. Mizrak la-Kesef , Treatise on Creation, lost. Retukot Kesef , Principles of linguistics, Ms.
Rome-Angelica Sharshot Kesef , Dictionary of Hebrew roots, Ms. Part published by I. Last, JQR , pp. Shulchan Kesef , Five exegetical and theological essays, ed. Kasher, Jerusalem Tam ha-Kesef , Eight theological essays, ed. Last, London Terumat Kesef , Brief treatise on ethics and politics, Ms.
Wien Part published by E. Last, Presburg Abrahams ed. I, pp. Tseror ha-Kesef , Brief treatise on logic, unpublished, Ms. Part published by S. Rosenberg in Iyun 32 , pp. Secondary Sources Aslanov, C. Hispania Judaica Bulletin 6, pp. Bacher, W. Ben-Shalom, R. Dimant, I. Efros I. Eisen, R. Jewish Studies Quarterly , 13, pp. Finkelscherer, B. Goetschel, R. Grossman, A. Herring, B. Kahan M. Mehkarim BeLashon 14— Balshanut Ivrit Leshonenu Hebrew, accepted for publication Kasher, H.
Hallamish and A. Kasher ed. Kasher H. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation.
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