Particle size dynamics: Toward a better understanding of electronic cigarette aerosol interactions with the respiratory system. Best-fit refractive index and particulate mass for 2 s puff duration. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure.
The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure.
Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. The battery of the Brand A e-cigarette was fully charged prior to conducting experiments; however, it was not possible Experimental to charge the disposable Brand B. The experimental apparatus employed is depicted The tobacco burning cigarettes were smoked at two schematically in Figure 1.
A computer controlled puff- puff profiles, 35 cm3 volume with a 2 s duration at 60 ing machine, previously described by Ingebrethsen s interval and 55 cm3 volume with a 2 s duration at 30 s and Alderman , was used to draw puffs of speci- interval. Five replicates for puff number two and five fied flow rate profile through the smoking devices. The replicates for puff number five were analyzed separately effluent was drawn directly and continuously through a for particle size from samples taken from five separate cylindrical 2.
Transmitted light intensity is measured by with a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer a linear diode array spectrometer Ocean Optics which DMS coupled with a Cambustion Smoking Cycle is connected to the transmission cell, along with the light Simulator SCS. The DMS classifies particles in the source, by fiber optic cables. The transmitted light inten- 5— nm range according to their electrical mobility sity is measured at 10 Hz for four, 6 nm wide wavelength and aerosol is introduced into the spectrometer via the widows centered at , , and nm.
It one tobacco burning cigarette, Kentucky reference ciga- is worth noting that the particle size distribution descrip- rette 3R4F. However, aerosol per with the aerosol precursor solution and a metal filament puff mass was calculated by converting discretely deter- heater coiled around a wick bundle.
Three puff profiles mined geometric mean diameters dg to diameters of were employed for each e-cigarette type: square wave average mass dAM via a Hatch-Choate equation, implic- puffs of 55 cm3 total volume for 2, 3 and 4 s total dura- itly assuming that a log-normal distribution of sizes is tion. This log-normal assumption has previously mission measurements were made on two puffs at 30 s been shown to be a valid for tobacco burning cigarettes Adam et al.
The DMS electrometers were set to a low gain mode and the internal rotating disc diluter was set to maintain a dilution ratio of Aerosol dilution during these measurements takes place both at the SCS sampling head and also at the inter- nal rotating disc diluter. The combined dilution ratios ranged from to , depending on the smok- ing regimen under study. Three consecutive puffs were taken from each e-cigarette; however, the first puff was not analyzed. As with the spectral transmission experi- ments, five replicates were averaged for each cigarette type and smoking regimen combination.
Gravimetric measurements were made using a standard Cambridge filter pad procedure using the same puff engine used for the spectral transmission experiments. The products and samplings procedures for the gravimetric measurements were identical to those employed for the spectral trans- mission and DMS measurements including control Figure 1. Apparatus for spectral transmission measurements of of relative humidity during the smoking and weighing aerosol particle size distribution and number concentration.
The ranges of refractive index used were different sion, electric mobility, and gravimetric. Thirty puffs in for the e-cigarettes, n from 1. Previous puff-by-puff and the tobacco burning cigarettes 1. The e-cigarette refractive index range was sol puff mass or number concentration as a function of selected to span the region covering pure water to pure puff number over this range. For a distribution of determination. The extinction efficiency is the ratio of the amount of over the puff duration.
Mass concentrations were calcu- light removed from the incident light beam by a particle lated using a diameter of average mass, dAM, which was to the amount geometrically incident on the particle. The value for the e-cigarette den- The ratios of absorbances at different wavelengths are sity is an approximate estimate based on the assumption seen to be equal to the ratios of extinction coefficients at that the particulate matter is a mixture of higher density those wavelengths for a given particle size distribution, glycerin 1.
The theoretical extinction coefficient electrical mobility and gravimetric experiments for ratios for each wavelength pair were calculated by a Mie all cigarettes and smoking regimens studied. Theoretical cal- reported in Tables 1—3 are puff-averaged values with the culations were made for dg from 10 to nm in 10 nm indicated standard deviations.
Table 1. Comparison of per-puff average particle diameter, number concentration and total particulate mass for a 3R4F Kentucky Reference cigarette at two different smoking regimens and puff numbers. Table 2. Comparison of per-puff average particle diameter, number concentration and total particulate mass for the Brand A e-cigarette at three different smoking regimens.
Table 3. Comparison of per-puff average particle diameter, number concentration and total particulate mass for the Brand B e-cigarette at three different smoking regimens. Table 1 gives the data for the tobacco burning, three smoking regimens studied. Particle size electronic cigarette separate cigarettes. Table 3 shows the same summary for the Brand B e-cigarette. The time-based spectral transmission measurements provide intra-puff profiles of the various aerosol param- eters.
Figure 2 is a plot of the diameter of average mass and the number concentration vs. The values plotted are the average of 10 measurements, 2 puffs each on 5 sepa- rate cigarettes taken at this one puffing regimen. Figure 3 is a similar plot for the Brand B cigarette puffed under the Figure 3. Number concentration and diameter of average mass vs. Figure 4 shows the same parameters time for the Brand B ecigarette produced with a 55 cm3 puff volume plotted vs. The values plotted are averages for five replicate puffs.
The particle number concentration and size distribu- tion profiles are used to calculate particle mass concen- trations profiles. Figure 5 shows the particulate mass concentration in grams per cubic centimeter plotted vs. The values plotted are averages of 10 replicate puffs, 2 each per five separate cigarettes. Figure 6 shows the corresponding data plotted for the Brand B cigarette for the same three puffing regimens with the same averaging procedure. Figure 7 is a plot of the mass concentration vs.
The values in Figure 7 are averages over five replicate puffs. The best-fit refractive indices as determined by the Figure 4. The values plotted are the averages of 10 replicate puffs, Figure 2. Particulate mass concentration vs. Figure 6. Best-fit refractive index and particulate mass ecigarette puffed at 55 cm3 puff volume for 2, 3 and 4 s puff duration. Figure 7. United States Fire Administration. July This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
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Combined air heating and ventilation quality before, during and after exhaled smoke from a conventional. Peering through the mist: systematic exhaled aerosol from e-cigarettes with unrestricted use of E-Cigarettes in cigarette and exhaled breaths. Open in new tab Download. An assessment of indoor air increases risk of personal exposure of contaminants in electronic cigarettes the floor level. Electronic cigarettes: review of use, impairs indoor air quality and to airborne pollutants released at. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco and education by publishing worldwide. Secondhand exposure to vapors from. Use of electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes00Farsalinos KEPolosa R. Close mobile search navigation Article. Comparison of select analytes in content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and.Fast Scanning and Standalone Operation: TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) The size distributions and number concentrations of e-cigarette particles were measured with a portable aerosol mobility spectrometer (PAMS. Now, researchers have analyzed how e-cigarette particle size and then collected the aerosol and measured particle size distribution. in the case of e-cigarette droplets relative to their initial size distributions; and, (iv) particles commonly used in human inhalation studies, inhaled particle sizes. 133 134 135 136 137